Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso and R. Hillenbrand

Science 344, p.1369 (2014)
Graphene plasmons promise unique possibilities for controlling light in nanoscale devices and for merging optics with electronics. We developed a versatile platform technology based on resonant optical antennas and conductivity patterns for launching and control of propagating graphene plasmons, an essential step for the development of graphene plasmonic circuits. We launched and focused infrared graphene plasmons with geometrically tailored antennas and observed how they refracted when passing through a two-dimensional conductivity pattern, here a prism-shaped bilayer. To that end, we directly mapped the graphene plasmon wavefronts by means of an imaging method that will be useful in testing future design concepts for nanoscale graphene plasmonic circuits and devices.