Multiple Tunable Hyperbolic Resonances in Broadband Infrared Carbon-Nanotube Metamaterials

J. A. Roberts, P.-H. Ho, S.-J. Yu, X. Wu, Y. Luo, W. L. Wilson, A. L. Falk and J. A. Fan

Phys. Rev. Applied 14, 044006 (2020)
Aligned densely packed carbon-nanotube metamaterials prepared using vacuum filtration are an emerging infrared nanophotonic material. We report multiple hyperbolic plasmon resonances, together spanning the mid-infrared, in individual resonators made from aligned and densely packed carbon nanotubes. In a near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) imaging study of nanotube metamaterial resonators, we observe distinct deeply subwavelength field profiles at the fundamental and higher-order resonant frequencies. The wafer-scale area of the nanotube metamaterials allows us to combine this near-field imaging with a systematic far-field spectroscopic study of the scaling properties of many resonator arrays. Thorough theoretical modeling agrees with these measurements and identifies the resonances as higher-order Fabry-Perot (FP) resonances of hyperbolic waveguide modes. Nanotube resonator arrays show broadband extinction from 1.5–10 µm and reversibly switchable extinction in the 3–5 µm atmospheric transparency window through the coexistence of multiple modes in individual ribbons. Broadband carbon-nanotube metamaterials supporting multiple resonant modes are a promising candidate for ultracompact absorbers, tunable thermal emitters, and broadband sensors in the mid-infrared.