G. Hu, W. Ma, D. Hu, J. Wu, C. Zheng, K. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Ni, J. Chen, X. Zhang, Q. Dai, J. D. Caldwell, A. Paarmann, A. Alù, P. Li and C.-W. Qiu
Nature Nanotechnology (2022)
Various optical crystals possess permittivity components of opposite signs along different principal directions in the mid-infrared regime, exhibiting exotic anisotropic phonon resonances. Such materials with hyperbolic polaritons—hybrid light–matter quasiparticles with open isofrequency contours—feature large-momenta optical modes and wave confinement that make them promising for nanophotonic on-chip technologies. So far, hyperbolic polaritons have been observed and characterized in crystals with high symmetry including hexagonal (boron nitride), trigonal (calcite) and orthorhombic (α-MoO3 or α-V2O5) crystals, where they obey certain propagation patterns. However, lower-symmetry materials such as monoclinic crystals were recently demonstrated to offer richer opportunities for polaritonic phenomena. Here, using scanning near-field optical microscopy, we report the direct real-space nanoscale imaging of symmetry-broken hyperbolic phonon polaritons in monoclinic CdWO4 crystals, and showcase inherently asymmetric polariton excitation and propagation associated with the nanoscale shear phenomena. We also introduce a quantitative theoretical model to describe these polaritons that leads to schemes to enhance crystal asymmetry via the damping loss of phonon modes. Ultimately, our findings show that polaritonic nanophotonics is attainable using natural materials with low symmetry, favouring a versatile and general way to manipulate light at the nanoscale.