Near-field imaging of graphene triangles patterned by helium ion lithography

Xi. Jiang, W. Cai, W. Luo, Y. Xiang, N. Zhang, M. Ren, X. Zhang and J. Xu

Nanotechnology 29, 385205 (2018)
Plasmon nanoresonators in graphene have many applications in biosensing, photodetectors and modulators. As a result, an efficient and precise patterning technique for graphene is required. Helium ion lithography (HIL) emerges as a promising tool for direct writing fabrication because it owns improved fabrication precision compared to electron beam lithography and conventional gallium focused ion beam technique. In this paper, utilizing HIL, a set of graphene triangles are patterned and excellent plasmon response is detected. Particularly, the evolution of breathing mode in these structures is unveiled by scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy. Besides, the plasmon response of graphene structures can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the irradiated ion dose during the etching process, which can be explained by the phenomenal simulation model. Our work demonstrates that HIL is a feasible way for precise plasmonic nanostructure fabrication, and can be applied to graphene plasmon control at the nanoscale as well.