Nanoinfrared Characterization of Bilayer Graphene Conductivity under Dual-Gate Tuning

W. Luo, A. B. Kuzmenko, J. Qi, N. Zhang, W. Wu, M. Ren, X. Zhang, W. Cai and J. Xu

Nanoletters, 21, 12, 5151–5157 (2021)
Dual-gate tuning on two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures can provide independent control of the carrier concentration and interlayer electrostatic potential, yielding novel electronic and optical properties. In this paper, by utilizing monolayer graphene as both the top gate and a plasmon wavelength magnifier, the optical properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) under dual-gate are quantitatively investigated by nanoinfrared imaging. The hybrid optical modes in the vertically coupled two-layer system are imaged from scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy (s-SNOM). Moreover, plasmon dispersion behaviors under varied dual-gate tuning are explored and explained well with theoretical ones employing tight binding approximation, which reveals the flexibility in individually manipulating the Fermi energy and bandgap. Especially, electron–hole asymmetry in BLG is verified from experiments. Our studies pave route for quantitative near-field investigation of superlattice, topological boundaries, and other emergent phenomena in graphene-based 2D heterostructures.