Guided Polaritons along the Forbidden Direction in MoO3 with Geometrical Confinement

Mingze He, Levi Hoogendoorn, Saurabh Dixit, Zhiliang Pan, Guanyu Lu, Katja Diaz-Granados, Deyu Li and Joshua D. Caldwell

Nano Letters 23, 5035 (2023)
Highly anisotropic materials show great promise for spatial control and the manipulation of polaritons. In-plane hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) supported by α-phase molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) allow for wave propagation with a high directionality due to the hyperbola-shaped isofrequency contour (IFC). However, the IFC prohibits propagations along the [001] axis, hindering information or energy flow. Here, we illustrate a novel approach to manipulating the HPhP propagation direction. We experimentally demonstrate that geometrical confinement in the [100] axis can guide HPhPs along the forbidden direction with phase velocity becoming negative. We further developed an analytical model to provide insights into this transition. Moreover, as the guided HPhPs are formed in-plane, modal profiles were directly imaged to further expand our understanding of the formation of HPhPs. Our work reveals a possibility for manipulating HPhPs and paves the way for promising applications in metamaterials, nanophotonics, and quantum optics based on natural van der Waals materials.