Imaging Anisotropic Waveguide Exciton Polaritons in Tin Sulfide

Y. Luan, H. Zobeiri, X. Wang, E. Sutter, P. Sutter and Z. Fei

Nanoletters 22, 1497 (2022)
In recent years, novel materials supporting in-plane anisotropic polaritons have attracted a great deal of research interest due to their capability of shaping nanoscale field distributions and controlling nanophotonic energy flows. Here we report a nano-optical imaging study of waveguide exciton polaritons (EPs) in tin sulfide (SnS) in the near-infrared (near-IR) region using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). With s-SNOM, we mapped in real space the propagative EPs in SnS, which show sensitive dependence on the excitation energy and sample thickness. Moreover, we found that both the polariton wavelength and propagation length are anisotropic in the sample plane. In particular, in a narrow spectral range from 1.32 to 1.44 eV, the EPs demonstrate quasi-one-dimensional propagation, which is rarely seen in natural polaritonic materials. A further analysis indicates that the observed polariton anisotropy originates from the different optical band gaps and exciton binding energies along the two principal crystal axes of SnS.