S. H. Park, S. Park, S. Lee, J. Kim, H. Ahn, B. J. Kim, B. Chae, H. J. Son
Nano Energy 77, 105147 (2021)
To transfer spin-coating based high performance polymer solar cells (PSCs) to large area using roll-to-roll compatible solution process, it is important to understand effect of the processing method and materials on morphology of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) films. We developed PBDB-T based PSCs modules using PC71BM or nonfullerene acceptor ITIC with blade coating. It is found that crystallization of ITIC and its following aggregation are significantly affected by solvent drying dynamics which is induced by thermal heating whereas PC71BM shows similar BHJ morphology regardless heating temperature. We studied mechanism and effects of acceptors on BHJ film forming during the coating. ITIC-solvent interaction makes ITIC to form high crystalline structures and but, large aggregated domains during slow solvent evaporation at room temperature. Such aggregated morphology of PBDB-T:ITIC is much improved to optimal morphology for effective charge generation and transporting with a 50 °C heating process. As a result, PBDB-T:ITIC photovoltaic module (active area 58.5 cm2) prepared at 50 °C showed much enhanced efficiency of 9.03% than 5.0% of room temperature processed one. This result is among the highest performance of large active-area PSC modules and provides research guidelines for efficient transfer of spin-coating based small cell technology to roll-to-roll based large-area PSC modules.