W. S. Hart, V. Panchal, C. Melios, W. Strupiński, O. Kazakova and C. C. Phillips
2D Mater 6, 021003 (2019)
Van der Waals surface polariton nanostructures are promising candidates for miniaturisation of electromagnetic devices through the nanoscale confinement of infrared light. To fully exploit these nanoresonators, a computationally efficient model is necessary to predict polariton behaviour in complex geometries. Here, we develop a general wave model of surface polaritons in 2D geometries smaller than the polariton wavelength. Using geometric approximation widely tuneable infrared nanoimaging and local work function microscopy, we test this model against complex mono-/bi-layer graphene plasmon nanoresonators. Direct imaging of highly resonant graphene plasmon hotspots confirms that the model provides quantitatively accurate, analytical predictions of nanoresonator behaviour. The insights built with such models are crucial to the development of practical plasmonic nanodevices.