Buried Interfaces in Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics

X. Yang, D. Luo, Y. Xiang, L. Zhao, M. Anaya, Y. Shen, J. Wu, W. Yang, Y.-H. Chiang, Y. Tu, R. Su, Q. Hu, H. Yu, G. Shao, W. Huang, T. P. Russell, Q. Gong, S. D. Stranks, W. Zhang and R. Zhu

Advanced Materials 33, 2006435 (2021)
Understanding the fundamental properties of buried interfaces in perovskite photovoltaics is of paramount importance to the enhancement of device efficiency and stability. Nevertheless, accessing buried interfaces poses a sizeable challenge because of their non‐exposed feature. Herein, the mystery of the buried interface in full device stacks is deciphered by combining advanced in situ spectroscopy techniques with a facile lift‐off strategy. By establishing the microstructure–property relations, the basic losses at the contact interfaces are systematically presented, and it is found that the buried interface losses induced by both the sub‐microscale extended imperfections and lead‐halide inhomogeneities are major roadblocks toward improvement of device performance. The losses can be considerably mitigated by the use of a passivation‐molecule‐assisted microstructural reconstruction, which unlocks the full potential for improving device performance. The findings open a new avenue to understanding performance losses and thus the design of new passivation strategies to remove imperfections at the top surfaces and buried interfaces of perovskite photovoltaics, resulting in substantial enhancement in device performance.