Infrared Resonance Tuning of Nanoslit Antennas with Phase-Change Materials

Lukas Conrads, Andreas Heßler, Lukas Völkel, Kilian Wilden, Achim Strauch, Julian Pries, Matthias Wuttig and Thomas Taubner

ACS Nano 17, 25721 (2023)

Phase-change materials (PCMs) have been established as prime candidates for nonvolatile resonance tuning of nanophotonic components based on a large optical contrast between their amorphous and crystalline states. Recently, the plasmonic PCM In3SbTe2 was introduced, which can be switched from an amorphous dielectric state to a crystalline metallic one over the entire infrared spectral range. While locally switching the PCM around metallic nanorod antennas has already been demonstrated, similar tuning of inverse antenna structures (nanoslits) has not yet been investigated. Here, we demonstrate optical resonance tuning of nanoslit antennas with dielectric and plasmonic PCMs. We compare two geometries with fundamentally different resonance tuning mechanisms: tuning the resonance of aluminum slit antennas by change of the refractive index (dielectric PCM Ge3Sb2Te6), and creating slit-like volumes of amorphous In3SbTe2 and modifying the slit geometry directly (plasmonic PCM In3SbTe2). While the tuning range with the plasmonic PCM is about 3.4 μm and only limited by fabrication, the resonances with the dielectric PCM feature a three times larger quality factor compared to resonances obtained with the plasmonic PCM.