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Near-field photocurrent nanoscopy on bare and encapsulated graphene

A. Woessner, P. Alonso-González, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, J. E. Barrios-Vargas, G. Navickaite, Q. Ma, D. Janner, K. Watanabe, A. W. Cummings, T. Taniguchi, V. Pruneri, S. Roche, P. Jarillo-Herrero, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand & F. H. L. Koppens

Nature Communications 7, Article number: 10783 (2016)
Optoelectronic devices utilizing graphene have demonstrated unique capabilities and performances beyond state-of-the-art technologies. However, requirements in terms of device quality and uniformity are demanding. A major roadblock towards high-performance devices are nanoscale variations of the graphene device properties, impacting their macroscopic behaviour. Here we present and apply non-invasive optoelectronic nanoscopy to measure the optical and electronic properties of graphene devices locally. This is achieved by combining scanning near-field infrared nanoscopy with electrical read-out, allowing infrared photocurrent mapping at length scales of tens of nanometres. Using this technique, we study the impact of edges and grain boundaries on the spatial carrier density profiles and local thermoelectric properties. Moreover, we show that the technique can readily be applied to encapsulated graphene devices. We observe charge build-up near the edges and demonstrate a solution to this issue.