Fast Nano-IR Hyperspectral Imaging Empowered by Large-Dataset-Free Miniaturized Spatial–Spectral Network

Yun Gao, Peng Zheng, Zhao-Dong Meng, Hai-Long Wang, En-Ming You, Jin-Hui Zhong, Zhong-Qun Tian, Lei Wang and Hao He

Analytical Chemistry 96, 9610 (2024)
The emerging field of nanoscale infrared (nano-IR) offers label-free molecular contrast, yet its imaging speed is limited by point-by-point traverse acquisition of a three-dimensional (3D) data cube. Here, we develop a spatial–spectral network (SS-Net), a miniaturized deep-learning model, together with compressive sampling to accelerate the nano-IR imaging. The compressive sampling is performed in both the spatial and spectral domains to accelerate the imaging process. The SS-Net is trained to learn the mapping from small nano-IR image patches to the corresponding spectra. With this elaborated mapping strategy, the training can be finished quickly within several minutes using the subsampled data, eliminating the need for a large-labeled dataset of common deep learning methods. We also designed an efficient loss function, which incorporates the image and spectral similarity to enhance the training. We first validate the SS-Net on an open stimulated Raman-scattering dataset; the results exhibit the potential of 10-fold imaging speed improvement with state-of-the-art performance. We then demonstrate the versatility of this approach on atomic force microscopy infrared (AFM-IR) microscopy with 7-fold imaging speed improvement, even on nanoscale Fourier transform infrared (nano-FTIR) microscopy with up to 261.6 folds faster imaging speed. We further showcase the generalization of this method on AFM-force volume-based multiparametric nanoimaging. This method establishes a paradigm for rapid nano-IR imaging, opening new possibilities for cutting-edge research in materials, photonics, and beyond.