All-Oxide Metasurfaces Formed by Synchronized Local Ionic Gating

Hyeon Han, Arpit Sharma, Jiho Yoon, Zhong Wang, Chris Körner, Hakan Deniz, Ankit K. Sharma, Fan Li, Chris Sturm, Georg Woltersdorf and Stuart S. P. Parkin

Advanced Materials 2401064 (2024)
Ionic gating of oxide thin films has emerged as a novel way of manipulating the properties of thin films. Most studies are carried out on single devices with a three-terminal configuration, but, by exploring the electrokinetics during the ionic gating, such a configuration with initially insulating films leads to a highly non-uniform gating response of individual devices within large arrays of the devices. It is shown that such an issue can be circumvented by the formation of a uniform charge potential by the use of a thin conducting underlayer. This synchronized local ionic gating allows for the simultaneous manipulation of the electrical, magnetic, and/or optical properties of large arrays of devices. Designer metasurfaces formed in this way from SrCoO2.5 thin films display an anomalous optical reflection of light that relies on the uniform and coherent response of all the devices. Beyond oxides, almost any material whose properties can be controlled by the addition or removal of ions via gating can form novel metasurfaces using this technique. These findings provide insights into the electrokinetics of ionic gating and a wide range of applications using synchronized local ionic gating.